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Autopoiesis Dissipative Structures And Spontaneous Social Orders


Author : Milan Zelený
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 1980

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Autopoiesis Dissipative Structures And Spontaneous Social Orders


Author : Milan Zelený
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 1980

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Download Autopoiesis Dissipative Structures And Spontaneous Social Orders written by Milan Zelený and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 1980 with Science categories.




New Approaches To Organizational Communication


Author : Branislav Kovačić
language : en
Publisher: SUNY Press
Release Date : 1994

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New Approaches to Organizational Communication brings together three major conceptual developments. First, it sheds new light on standards used to evaluate processes and practices of organizational communication. Second, individual chapters delineate new, vital mechanisms of organizational communications. Third, the book outlines the practical consequences of these new mechanisms of organizational communication.

Systems Science And Cybernetics Volume Iii


Author : Francisco Parra-Luna
language : en
Publisher: EOLSS Publications
Release Date :

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The subject “Systems sciences and cybernetics” is the outcome of the convergence of a number of trends in a larger current of thought devoted to the growing complexity of (primarily social) objects and arising in response to the need for globalized treatment of such objects. This has been magnified by the proliferation and publication of all manner of quantitative scientific data on such objects, advances in the theories on their inter-relations, the enormous computational capacity provided by IT hardware and software and the critical revisiting of subject-object interaction, not to mention the urgent need to control the efficiency of complex systems, where “efficiency” is understood to mean the ability to find a solution to many social problems, including those posed on a planetary scale. The result has been the forging of a new, academically consolidated scientific trend going by the name of Systems Theory and Cybernetics, with a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary focus and therefore apt for understanding realities still regarded to be inescapably chaotic. This subject entry is subdivided into four sections. The first, an introduction to systemic theories, addresses the historic development of the most commonly used systemic approaches, from new concepts such as the so-called “geometry of thinking” or the systemic treatment of “non-systemic identities” to the taxonomic, entropic, axiological and ethical problems deriving from a general “systemic-cybernetic” conceit. Hence, the focus in this section is on the historic and philosophical aspects of the subject. Moreover, it may be asserted today that, beyond a shadow of a doubt, problems, in particular problems deriving from human interaction but in general any problem regardless of its nature, must be posed from a systemic perspective, for otherwise the obstacles to their solution are insurmountable. Reaching such a perspective requires taking at least the following well-known steps: a) statement of the problem from the determinant variables or phenomena; b) adoption of theoretical models showing the interrelationships among such variables; c) use of the maximum amount of – wherever possible quantitative – information available on each; d) placement of the set of variables in an environment that inevitably pre-determines the problem. That epistemology would explain the substantial development of the systemic-cybernetic approach in recent decades. The articles in the second section deal in particular with the different methodological approaches developed when confronting real problems, from issues that affect humanity as a whole to minor but specific questions arising in human organizations. Certain sub-themes are discussed by the various authors – always from a didactic vantage –, including: problem discovery and diagnosis and development of the respective critical theory; the design of ad hoc strategies and methodologies; the implementation of both qualitative (soft system methodologies) and formal and quantitative (such as the “General System Problem Solver” or the “axiological-operational” perspective) approaches; cross-disciplinary integration; and suitable methods for broaching psychological, cultural and socio-political dynamisms. The third section is devoted to cybernetics in the present dual meaning of the term: on the one hand, control of the effectiveness of communication and actions, and on the other, the processes of self-production of knowledge through reflection and the relationship between the observing subject and the observed object when the latter is also observer and the former observed. Known as “second order cybernetics”, this provides an avenue for rethinking the validity of knowledge, such as for instance when viewed through what is known as “bipolar feedback”: processes through which interactions create novelty, complexity and diversity. Finally, the fourth section centres around artificial and computational intelligence, addressing sub-themes such as “neural networks”, the “simulated annealing” that ranges from statistical thermodynamics to combinatory problem-solving, such as in the explanation of the role of adaptive systems, or when discussing the relationship between biological and computational intelligence.

Information Society And Civil Society


Author : Slavko Splichael Editor
language : en
Publisher: Purdue University Press
Release Date : 1994

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Any examination of contemporary society must recognize a central place for information and communication processes and for the technologies and institutions on which they rely, particularly for public communication. The essays in this volume juxtapose two central concepts of recent social and political thought -- civil society and information society - and relate them to the complex nature of contemporary public communication. A number of authors, including several contributors to this collection, argue that on the eve of the twenty-first century, civil society is beginning to disintegrate everywhere. In this volume, fifteen scholars from ten different countries address that argument by problematizing the relation between the older concept, civil society, and the newer one, information society, and offering perspectives on future directions.

System Theory In Geomorphology


Author : Kirsten von Elverfeldt
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-03-13

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Empirical research needs a profound theory to be successful. This is the simple but, in its consequences, radical approach for this study in geomorphology. It critically analyses the current system understanding and offers a new view for a geomorphology that understands systems as being open but at the same time operationally closed, as self-organized, structure-building and potentially self-referential. Kirsten von Elverfeldt succeeds in designing a theoretical framework that sets new standards within Physical Geography. By using state-of-the-art concepts in system theory, it offers also new bridges to Human Geography as well as to other neighbouring disciplines. This book was awarded the Dissertation prize 2010 of the German Working Group in Geomorphology of the DGfG and the Hans Bobek-prize of the ÖGG (Austrian Geographical Society).

Operational Research And The Social Sciences


Author : S.A. Cropper
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06

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Twenty five years ago, in 1964, The Operational Research Society's first International Conference (held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge) took as its theme "Operational Research and the Social Sciences". The Conference sessions were organised around topics such as: Organisations and Control; Social Effects of Policies; Conflict Resolution; The Systems Concept; Models, Decisions and Operational Research. An examination of the published proceedings (J.R.Lawrence ed., 1966, Operational Research and the Social Sciences, Tavistock, London) reveals a distinct contrast between the types of contribution made by the representatives of the two academic communities involved. Nevertheless, the Conference served to break down some barriers, largely of ignorance about the objects, methods and findings of each concern. In the ensuing twenty five years, although debate has continued about the relationship between OR and the social sciences, mutual understanding has proved more difficult to achieve than many must have hoped for in 1964.