Derek Parfit S Reasons And Persons


Derek Parfit S Reasons And Persons

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Reasons And Persons


Reasons And Persons
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Author : Derek Parfit
language : en
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date : 1986-01-23

Reasons And Persons written by Derek Parfit and has been published by OUP Oxford this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 1986-01-23 with Philosophy categories.


This book challenges, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity. The author claims that we have a false view of our own nature; that it is often rational to act against our own best interests; that most of us have moral views that are directly self-defeating; and that, when we consider future generations the conclusions will often be disturbing. He concludes that moral non-religious moral philosophy is a young subject, with a promising but unpredictable future.



Derek Parfit S Reasons And Persons


Derek Parfit S Reasons And Persons
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Author : Andrea Sauchelli
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2020

Derek Parfit S Reasons And Persons written by Andrea Sauchelli and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2020 with Ethics categories.


Derek Parfit's Reasons and Persons is an outstanding introduction to and assessment of Parfit's book, with chapters by leading scholars of ethics, metaphysics and of Parfit's work. Ideal for students of ethics, metaethics, metaphysics and anyone interested in Derek Parfit's philosophy.



Reasons And Persons


Reasons And Persons
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Author : Derek Parfit
language : en
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date : 1987

Reasons And Persons written by Derek Parfit and has been published by Oxford University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 1987 with Philosophy categories.


Part 1 discusses ways in which theories about morality and rationality can be self-defeating and Part 2 the relations between what a single person can rationally want or do at different times, and what different people can rationally want or do. Parts 3 & 4 tackle personal identity and our obligations to future generations.



On What Matters


On What Matters
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Author : Derek Parfit
language : en
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2017-02-09

On What Matters written by Derek Parfit and has been published by Oxford University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2017-02-09 with Philosophy categories.


Derek Parfit presents the third volume of On What Matters, his landmark work of moral philosophy. Parfit develops further his influential treatment of reasons, normativity, the meaning of moral discourse, and the status of morality. He engages with his critics, and shows the way to resolution of their differences. This volume is partly about what it is for things to matter, in the sense that we all have reasons to care about these things. Much of the book discusses three of the main kinds of meta-ethical theory: Normative Naturalism, Quasi-Realist Expressivism, and Non-Metaphysical Non-Naturalism, which Derek Parfit now calls Non-Realist Cognitivism. This third theory claims that, if we use the word 'reality' in an ontologically weighty sense, irreducibly normative truths have no mysterious or incredible ontological implications. If instead we use 'reality' in a wide sense, according to which all truths are truths about reality, this theory claims that some non-empirically discoverable truths-such as logical, mathematical, modal, and some normative truths-raise no difficult ontological questions. Parfit discusses these theories partly by commenting on the views of some of the contributors to Peter Singer's collection Does Anything Really Matter? Parfit on Objectivity. Though Peter Railton is a Naturalist, he has widened his view by accepting some further claims, and he has suggested that this wider version of Naturalism could be combined with Non-Realist Cognitivism. Parfit argues that Railton is right, since these theories no longer deeply disagree. Though Allan Gibbard is a Quasi-Realist Expressivist, he has suggested that the best version of his view could be combined with Non-Realist Cognitivism. Parfit argues that Gibbard is right, since Gibbard and he now accept the other's main meta-ethical claim. It is rare for three such different philosophical theories to be able to be widened in ways that resolve their deepest disagreements. This happy convergence supports the view that these meta-ethical theories are true. Parfit also discusses the views of several other philosophers, and some other meta-ethical and normative questions.



Does Anything Really Matter


Does Anything Really Matter
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Author : Peter Singer
language : en
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2017-01-12

Does Anything Really Matter written by Peter Singer and has been published by Oxford University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2017-01-12 with Philosophy categories.


In the first two volumes of On What Matters Derek Parfit argues that there are objective moral truths, and other normative truths about what we have reasons to believe, and to want, and to do. He thus challenges a view of the role of reason in action that can be traced back to David Hume, and is widely assumed to be correct, not only by philosophers but also by economists. In defending his view, Parfit argues that if there are no objective normative truths, nihilism follows, and nothing matters. He criticizes, often forcefully, many leading contemporary philosophers working on the nature of ethics, including Simon Blackburn, Stephen Darwall, Allen Gibbard, Frank Jackson, Peter Railton, Mark Schroeder, Michael Smith, and Sharon Street. Does Anything Really Matter? gives these philosophers an opportunity to respond to Parfit's criticisms, and includes essays on Parfit's views by Richard Chappell, Andrew Huddleston, Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer, Bruce Russell, and Larry Temkin. A third volume of On What Matters, in which Parfit engages with his critics and breaks new ground in finding significant agreement between his own views and theirs, is appearing as a separate companion volume.



Principles And Persons


Principles And Persons
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Author : Jeff McMahan
language : en
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2021-05-11

Principles And Persons written by Jeff McMahan and has been published by Oxford University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2021-05-11 with Philosophy categories.


Derek Parfit, who died in 2017, is widely believed to have been the most significant moral philosopher in well over a century. The twenty-one new essays in this book have all been inspired by his work. They address issues with which he was concerned in his writing, particularly in his seminal contribution to moral philosophy, Reasons and Persons (OUP, 1984). Rather than simply commenting on his work, these essays attempt to make further progress with issues, both moral and prudential, that Parfit believed matter to our lives: issues concerned with how we ought to live, and what we have most reason to do. Topics covered in the book include the nature of personal identity, the basis of self-interested concern about the future, the rationality of our attitudes toward time, what it is for a life to go well or badly, how to evaluate moral theories, the nature of reasons for action, the aggregation of value, how benefits and harms should be distributed among people, and what degree of sacrifice morality requires us to make for the sake of others. These include some of the most important questions of normative ethical theory, as well as fundamental questions about the metaphysics of personhood and personal identity, and the ways in which the answers to these questions bear on what it is rational and moral for us to do.



Ethics And Existence


Ethics And Existence
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Author : Jeff McMahan
language : en
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2022

Ethics And Existence written by Jeff McMahan and has been published by Oxford University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2022 with Philosophy categories.


Derek Parfit, who died in 2017, is widely believed to have been the best moral philosopher in well over a century. The twenty new essays in this book were written in his honour and have all been inspired by his work--in particular, his work in an area of moral philosophy known as 'population ethics', which is concerned with moral issues raised by causing people to exist. Until Parfit began writing about these issues in the 1970s, there was almost no discussion of them in the entire history of philosophy. But his monumental book Reasons and Persons (OUP, 1984) revealed that population ethics abounds in deep and intractable problems and paradoxes that not only challenge all the major moral theories but also threaten to undermine many important common-sense moral beliefs. It is no exaggeration to say that there is a broad range of practical moral issues that cannot be adequately understood until fundamental problems in population ethics are resolved. These issues include abortion, prenatal injury, preconception and prenatal screening for disability, genetic enhancement and eugenics generally, meat eating, climate change, reparations for historical injustice, the threat of human extinction, and even proportionality in war. Although the essays in this book address foundational problems in population ethics that were discovered and first discussed by Parfit, they are not, for the most part, commentaries on his work but instead build on that work in advancing our understanding of the problems themselves. The contributors include many of the most important and influential writers in this burgeoning area of philosophy.



Reasons Without Persons


Reasons Without Persons
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Author : Brian Hedden
language : en
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date : 2015

Reasons Without Persons written by Brian Hedden and has been published by Oxford University Press, USA this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2015 with Philosophy categories.


Brian Hedden defends a radical view about rationality, personal identity, and time. He argues that what it is rational to do should not depend on your past beliefs or actions, which are not part of your current perspective on the world. His impersonal approach holds that what rationality demands of you is solely determined by your evidence.



On What Matters


On What Matters
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Author : Derek Parfit
language : en
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2011

On What Matters written by Derek Parfit and has been published by Oxford University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2011 with Philosophy categories.


On What Matters is a major work in moral philosophy. It is the long-awaited follow-up to Derek Parfit's 1984 book Reasons and Persons, one of the landmarks of twentieth-century philosophy. Parfit now presents a powerful new treatment of reasons, rationality, and normativity, and a critical examination of three systematic moral theories - Kant's ethics, contractualism, and consequentialism - leading to his own ground-breaking synthetic conclusion. Along the way he discusses a wide range of moral issues, such as the significance of consent, treating people as a means rather than an end, and free will and responsibility. On What Matters is already the most-discussed work in moral philosophy: its publication is likely to establish it as a modern classic which everyone working on moral philosophy will have to read, and which many others will turn to for stimulation and illumination.



On What Matters


On What Matters
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Author : Derek Parfit
language : en
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date : 2011-05-26

On What Matters written by Derek Parfit and has been published by OUP Oxford this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2011-05-26 with Philosophy categories.


On What Matters is a major work in moral philosophy. It is the long-awaited follow-up to Derek Parfit's 1984 book Reasons and Persons, one of the landmarks of twentieth-century philosophy. In this first volume Parfit presents a powerful new treatment of reasons and rationality, and a critical examination of three systematic moral theories — Kant's ethics, contractualism, and consequentialism — leading to his own ground-breaking synthetic conclusion. Along the way he discusses a wide range of moral issues, such as the significance of consent, treating people as a means rather than an end, and free will and responsibility. On What Matters is already the most-discussed work in moral philosophy: its publication is likely to establish it as a modern classic which everyone working on moral philosophy will have to read, and which many others will turn to for stimulation and illumination.