The Art Science Of Protective Relaying C Russell Mason 2015

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The Art Science Of Protective Relaying C Russell Mason 2015


The Art Science Of Protective Relaying C Russell Mason 2015


File Size : 48,7 Mb
Total Download : 890

Author : C. Russell Mason
language : en
Publisher: Bukupedia
Release Date : 2015-05-05



Download The Art Science Of Protective Relaying C Russell Mason 2015 written by C. Russell Mason and has been published by Bukupedia this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2015-05-05 with Technology & Engineering categories.


We usually think of an electric power system in terms of its more impressive partsÐthe big generating stations, transformers, high-voltage lines, etc. While these are some of the basic elements, there are many other necessary and fascinating components. Protective relaying is one of these. The role of protective relaying in electric-power-system design and operation is explained by a brief examination of the over-all background. There are three aspects of a power system that will serve the purposes of this examination. These aspects are as follows: A. Normal operation B. Prevention of electrical failure. C. Mitigation of the effects of electrical failure. The term Ònormal operationÓ assumes no failures of equipment, no mistakes of personnel, nor Òacts of God.Ó It involves the minimum requirements for supplying the existing load and a certain amount of anticipated future load. Some of the considerations are: A. Choice between hydro, steam, or other sources of power. B. Location of generating stations. C. Transmission of power to the load. D. Study of the load characteristics and planning for its future growth. E. Metering F. Voltage and frequency regulation. G. System operation. E. Normal maintenance. The provisions for normal operation involve the major expense for equipment and operation, but a system designed according to this aspect alone could not possibly meet present-day requirements. Electrical equipment failures would cause intolerable outages. There must be additional provisions to minimize damage to equipment and interruptions to the service when failures occur. Two recourses are open: (1) to incorporate features of design aimed at preventing failures, and (2) to include provisions for mitigating the effects of failure when it occurs. Modern 2 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING power-system design employs varying degrees of both recourses, as dictated by the economics of any particular situation. Notable advances continue to be made toward greater reliability. But also, increasingly greater reliance is being placed on electric power. Consequently, even though the probability of failure is decreased, the tolerance of the possible harm to the service is also decreased. But it is futile-or at least not economically justifiable-to try to prevent failures completely. Sooner or later the law of diminishing returns makes itself felt. Where this occurs will vary between systems and between parts of a system, but, when this point is reached, further expenditure for failure prevention is discouraged. It is much more profitable, then, to let some failures occur and to provide for mitigating their effects. The type of electrical failure that causes greatest concern is the short circuit, or ÒfaultÓ as it is usually called, but there are other abnormal operating conditions peculiar to certain elements of the system that also require attention. Some of the features of design and operation aimed at preventing electrical failure are: A. Provision of adequate insulation. B. Coordination of insulation strength with the capabilities of lightning arresters. C. Use of overhead ground wires and low tower-footing resistance. D. Design for mechanical strength to reduce exposure, and to minimize the likelihood of failure causable by animals, birds, insects, dirt, sleet, etc. E. Proper operation and maintenance practices. Some of the features of design and operation for mitigating the effects of failure are: A. Features that mitigate the immediate effects of an electrical failure. 1. Design to limit the magnitude of short-circuit current.1 a. By avoiding too large concentrations of generating capacity. b. By using current-limiting impedance. 2. Design to withstand mechanical stresses and heating owing to short-circuit currents. 3. Time-delay undervoltage devices on circuit breakers to prevent dropping loads during momentary voltage dips. 4. Ground-fault neutralizers (Petersen coils). B. Features for promptly disconnecting the faulty element. 1. Protective relaying. 2. Circuit breakers with sufficient interrupting capacity. 3. Fuses. C. Features that mitigate the loss of the faulty element. 1. Alternate circuits. 2. Reserve generator and transformer capacity. 3. Automatic reclosing. THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING 3 D. Features that operate throughout the period from the inception of the fault until after its removal, to maintain voltage and stability. 1. Automatic voltage regulation. 2. Stability characteristics of generators. E. Means for observing the electiveness of the foregoing features. 1. Automatic oscillographs. 2. Efficient human observation and record keeping. F. Frequent surveys as system changes or additions are made, to be sure that the foregoing features are still adequate. Thus, protective relaying is one of several features of system design concerned with minimizing damage to equipment and interruptions to service when electrical failures occur. When we say that relays Òprotect,Ó we mean that, together with other equipment, the relays help to minimize damage and improve service. It will be evident that all the mitigation features are dependent on one another for successfully minimizing the effects of failure. Therefore, the capabilities and the application requirements of protective-relaying equipments should be considered concurrently with the other features.2 This statement is emphasized because there is sometimes a tendency to think of the protective-relaying equipment after all other design considerations are irrevocably settled. Within economic limits, an electric power system should be designed so that it can be adequately protected. THE FUNCTION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING The function of protective relaying is to cause the prompt removal from service of any element of a power system when it suffers a short circuit, or when it starts to operate in any abnormal manner that might cause damage or otherwise interfere with the effective operation of the rest of the system. The relaying equipment is aided in this task by circuit breakers that are capable of disconnecting the faulty element when they are called upon to do so by the relaying equipment. Circuit breakers are generally located so that each generator, transformer, bus, transmission line, etc., can be completely disconnected from the rest of the system. These circuit breakers must have sufficient capacity so that they can carry momentarily the maximum short-circuit current that can flow through them, and then interrupt this current; they must also withstand closing in on such a short circuit and then interrupting it according to certain prescribed standards.3 Fusing is employed where protective relays and circuit breakers are not economically justifiable. Although the principal function of protective relaying is to mitigate the effects of short circuits, other abnormal operating conditions arise that also require the services of protective relaying. This is particularly true of generators and motors. A secondary function of protective relaying is to provide indication of the location and type of failure. Such data not only assist in expediting repair but also, by comparison with 4 THE PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING human observation and automatic oscillograph records, they provide means for analyzing the effectiveness of the fault-prevention and mitigation features including the protective relaying itself. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF PROTECTIVE RELAYING Let us consider for the moment only the relaying equipment for the protection against short circuits. There are two groups of such equipmentÐone which we shall call ÒprimaryÓ relaying, and the other Òback-upÓ relaying. Primary relaying is the first line of defense, whereas back-up relaying functions only when primary relaying fails.

The Art And Science Of Protective Relaying


The Art And Science Of Protective Relaying


File Size : 41,8 Mb
Total Download : 856

Author : C. Russell Mason
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 1964



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The Art And Science Of Protective Relaying


The Art And Science Of Protective Relaying


File Size : 51,5 Mb
Total Download : 595

Author : Charles Russell Mason
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 1968



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Pilot Protective Relaying


Pilot Protective Relaying


File Size : 45,7 Mb
Total Download : 639

Author : Elmore
language : en
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date : 1999-10-27



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This text concentrates on the fundamentals of protective relaying and aims to provide lasting information in intelligible language. It covers the relative qualities of modern transmission line systems, communications channels, three-terminal applications and program design for microprocessors, and also supplies an encyclopaedic bibliography listing professional papers useful to the relay engineer.

Electromechanical Energy Devices And Power Systems


Electromechanical Energy Devices And Power Systems


File Size : 44,9 Mb
Total Download : 588

Author : Zia A. Yamayee
language : en
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Release Date : 1994



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A thorough and understandable treatment of the topic, it introduces different energy sources and various electric energy conversion techniques. Presents an overview of the electric power system and its components. Reviews circuit and power concepts in electrical circuits. Covers magnetic circuits and transformers, fundamentals of rotating machines, theory and application of three-phase and single-phase induction motors, different power flow solution methods, the abnormal operating conditions of power systems including fault studies, system protection and power system stability. Contains scores of problems, examples, illustrations and diagrams.

Protective Relaying


Protective Relaying


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Total Download : 467

Author : J. Lewis Blackburn
language : en
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date : 2014-02-11



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For many years, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications has been the go-to text for gaining proficiency in the technological fundamentals of power system protection. Continuing in the bestselling tradition of the previous editions by the late J. Lewis Blackburn, the Fourth Edition retains the core concepts at the heart of power system analysis. Featuring refinements and additions to accommodate recent technological progress, the text: Explores developments in the creation of smarter, more flexible protective systems based on advances in the computational power of digital devices and the capabilities of communication systems that can be applied within the power grid Examines the regulations related to power system protection and how they impact the way protective relaying systems are designed, applied, set, and monitored Considers the evaluation of protective systems during system disturbances and describes the tools available for analysis Addresses the benefits and problems associated with applying microprocessor-based devices in protection schemes Contains an expanded discussion of intertie protection requirements at dispersed generation facilities Providing information on a mixture of old and new equipment, Protective Relaying: Principles and Applications, Fourth Edition reflects the present state of power systems currently in operation, making it a handy reference for practicing protection engineers. And yet its challenging end-of-chapter problems, coverage of the basic mathematical requirements for fault analysis, and real-world examples ensure engineering students receive a practical, effective education on protective systems. Plus, with the inclusion of a solutions manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption, the Fourth Edition is ready-made for classroom implementation.

The Art And Science Of Technical Analysis


The Art And Science Of Technical Analysis


File Size : 45,5 Mb
Total Download : 709

Author : Adam Grimes
language : en
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-05-31



Download The Art And Science Of Technical Analysis written by Adam Grimes and has been published by John Wiley & Sons this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2012-05-31 with Business & Economics categories.


A breakthrough trading book that provides powerful insights onprofitable technical patterns and strategies The Art and Science of Technical Analysis is agroundbreaking work that bridges the gaps between the academic viewof markets, technical analysis, and profitable trading. The bookexplores why randomness prevails in markets most, but not all, ofthe time and how technical analysis can be used to capturestatistically validated patterns in certain types of marketconditions. The belief of the book is that buying and sellingpressure causes patterns in prices, but that these technicalpatterns are only effective in the presence of true buying/sellingimbalance. The Art and Science of Technical Analysis is supported byextensive statistical analysis of the markets, which will debunksome tools and patterns such as Fibonacci analysis, and endorseother tools and trade setups. In addition, this reliable resourcediscusses trader psychology and trader learning curves based on theauthor's extensive experience as a trader and trainer oftraders. Offers serious traders a way to think about market problems,understand their own performance, and help find a more productivepath forward Includes extensive research to validate specific money-makingpatterns and strategies Written by an experienced market practitioner who has trainedand worked with many top traders Filled with in-depth insights and practical advice, The Artand Science of Technical Analysis will give you a realisticsense of how markets behave, when and how technical analysis works,and what it really takes to trade successfully.