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The Neural Underpinnings Of Vicarious Experience


Author :
language : en
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
Release Date : 2014-08-27

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Everyday we vicariously experience a range of states that we observe in other people: we may “feel” embarrassed when witnessing another making a social faux pas, or we may feel sadness when we see a loved one upset. In some cases this process appears to be implicit. For instance, observing pain in others may activate pain-related neural processes but without generating an overt feeling of pain. In other cases, people report a more literal, conscious sharing of affective or somatic states and this has sometimes been described as representing an extreme form of empathy. By contrast, there appear to be some people who are limited in their ability to vicariously experience the states of others. This may be the case in several psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and personality disorders where deficits in interpersonal understanding are observed, such as schizophrenia, autism, and psychopathy. In recent decades, neuroscientists have paid significant attention to the understanding of the “social brain,” and the way in which neural processes govern our understanding of other people. In this Research Topic, we wish to contribute towards this understanding and ask for the submission of manuscripts focusing broadly on the neural underpinnings of vicarious experience. This may include theoretical discussion, case studies, and empirical investigation using behavioural techniques, electrophysiology, brain stimulation, and neuroimaging in both healthy and clinical populations. Of specific interest will be the neural correlates of individual differences in traits such as empathy, how we distinguish between ourselves and other people, and the sensorimotor resonant mechanisms that may allow us to put ourselves in another’s shoes.

Mothers And Others


Author : Sarah Blaffer Hrdy
language : en
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Release Date : 2011-04-15

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Mothers and Others finds the key in the primatologically unique length of human childhood. Renowned anthropologist Sarah Hrdy argues that if human babies were to survive in a world of scarce resources, they would need to be cared for, not only by their mothers but also by siblings, aunts, fathers, friends—and, with any luck, grandmothers. Out of this complicated and contingent form of childrearing, Hrdy argues, came the human capacity for understanding others. In essence, mothers and others teach us who will care, and who will not.

The Student S Guide To Social Neuroscience


Author : Jamie Ward
language : en
Publisher: Psychology Press
Release Date : 2013-12-19

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Shortlisted for the British Psychological Society Book Award 2013! Social neuroscience is an expanding field which, by investigating the neural mechanisms that inform our behavior, explains our ability to recognize, understand, and interact with others. Concepts such as trust, revenge, empathy, prejudice, and love are now being explored and unraveled by the methods of neuroscience. Many researchers believe that evolutionary expansion of the primate and human brain was driven by the need to deal with social complexity, not only to understand and outwit our peers, but to take advantage of the benefits of cooperative living. But what kind of brain-based mechanisms did we end up with? Special routines for dealing with social problems, or more general solutions that can be used for non-social cognition too? How are we able to sacrifice our own self-interests to respond to the needs of others? How do cultural differences in the organization of society shape individual minds (and brains), and does the brain provide constraints on the possible range of cultural permutations? The Student’s Guide to Social Neuroscience explores and explains these big issues, using accessible examples from contemporary research. The first book of its kind, this engaging and cutting-edge text is an ideal introduction to the methods and concepts of social neuroscience for undergraduate and postgraduate students in fields such as psychology and neuroscience. Each chapter is richly illustrated in attractive full-color with figures, boxes, and ‘real-world’ implications of research. Several pedagogical features help students engage with the material, including essay questions, summary and key points, and further reading. This book is accompanied by substantial online resources that are available to qualifying adopters.

Empathy


Author : Jean Decety
language : en
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date : 2012

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Recent work on empathy theory, research, and applications, by scholars from disciplines ranging from neuroscience to psychoanalysis.

Mechanisms Of Social Connection


Author : Mario Mikulincer
language : en
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
Release Date : 2014

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"Why are human beings so eager to form social bonds, and why do they suffer so grievously when those bonds are disrupted or broken? How does a person overcome fear of rejection and distrust to become emotionally invested in and attached to others? How do we become identified with other members of a social group to the extent that we include them in our self-concept and rely on them to supply our sense of value? Why do they contribute so powerfully to our sense of meaning and our feelings of vitality, on the one hand, and--at times--to our anguish and despair, on the other? What neural and hormonal processes are involved in the formation and maintenance of social bonds? How do our social experiences in infancy and childhood influence our relational behavior and the quality of our social bonds in adulthood? How are our social connections influenced by biological and evolutionary processes and sociocultural contexts? These important questions about human connections have attracted the attention of researchers from diverse disciplines, such as social psychology, developmental psychology, communication studies, sociology, and neuroscience. But there is too little dialogue between the different disciplines, and this has resulted in a lack of integration of insights and findings. In the first four volumes of our Herzliya Series on Personality and Social Psychology, we focused on prosocial motives, emotions, and behavior; aggression, violence, and their effects; morality ("good and evil"); and existential concerns such as mortality, meaning, and freedom. In this, the fifth volume, we deepen our analysis of human social behavior by surveying some of the latest developments in theory and research concerning the physiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the formation of social connections at neural, dyadic, and group levels. We do this with the entire human life span in mind, beginning with infant-parent relationships. This new volume contains 21 chapters organized into four main sections: the brain level (focusing on the neural underpinnings of social connections and the hormonal processes that contribute to forming connections); the developmental level (focusing especially on child-parent relationships); the dyadic relationship level (focusing especially on romantic and marital relationships); and the group level (considering both evolutionary and physiological bases of group processes). Each section describes state-of-the-art theories and research from the disciplines of social psychology, developmental psychology, and social neuroscience. The chapter authors, all experts in their fields, generously agreed to come to Herzliya and deliver lectures at the 2012 Herzliya Symposium on Personality and Social Psychology. They participated in hours of formal lectures and discussions, spent many informal hours together, and then returned home and prepared chapters based on the lectures and discussions. The meeting was cohosted by the two editors of this volume. We worked with the chapter authors to make the resulting book as accessible, coherent, and readable as possible so it would be suitable for researchers and application oriented professionals as well as for university classes and the educated public. The book provides a lively, engaging, readable, and up-to-the-moment review of social psychological, developmental, and neuroscientific approaches to understanding the formation and quality of social connections across the life span"--Preface. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

The Social Neuroscience Of Empathy


Author : Jean Decety
language : en
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date : 2011-01-21

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In recent decades, empathy research has blossomed into a vibrant and multidisciplinary field of study. The social neuroscience approach to the subject is premised on the idea that studying empathy at multiple levels (biological, cognitive, and social) will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of how other people's thoughts and feelings can affect our own thoughts, feelings, and behavior. In these cutting-edge contributions, leading advocates of the multilevel approach view empathy from the perspectives of social, cognitive, developmental and clinical psychology and cognitive/affective neuroscience. Chapters include a critical examination of the various definitions of the empathy construct; surveys of major research traditions based on these differing views (including empathy as emotional contagion, as the projection of one's own thoughts and feelings, and as a fundamental aspect of social development); clinical and applied perspectives, including psychotherapy and the study of empathy for other people's pain; various neuroscience perspectives; and discussions of empathy's evolutionary and neuroanatomical histories, with a special focus on neuroanatomical continuities and differences across the phylogenetic spectrum. The new discipline of social neuroscience bridges disciplines and levels of analysis. In this volume, the contributors' state-of-the-art investigations of empathy from a social neuroscience perspective vividly illustrate the potential benefits of such cross-disciplinary integration.ContributorsC. Daniel Batson, James Blair, Karina Blair, Jerold D. Bozarth, Anne Buysse, Susan F. Butler, Michael Carlin, C. Sue Carter, Kenneth D. Craig, Mirella Dapretto, Jean Decety, Mathias Dekeyser, Ap Dijksterhuis, Robert Elliott, Natalie D. Eggum, Nancy Eisenberg, Norma Deitch Feshbach, Seymour Feshbach, Liesbet Goubert, Leslie S. Greenberg, Elaine Hatfield, James Harris, William Ickes, Claus Lamm, Yen-Chi Le, Mia Leijssen, Abigail Marsh, Raymond S. Nickerson, Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Stephen W. Porges, Richard L. Rapson, Simone G. Shamay-Tsoory, Rick B. van Baaren, Matthijs L. van Leeuwen, Andries van der Leij, Jeanne C. Watson

The Year In Cognitive Neuroscience


Author :
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2009

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