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1421


Author : Gavin Menzies
language : en
Publisher: Random House
Release Date : 2012-08-31

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On 8 March 1421, the largest fleet the world had ever seen set sail from China. The ships, some nearly five hundred feet long, were under the command of Emperor Zhu Di's loyal eunuch admirals. Their mission was 'to proceed all the way to the end of the earth to collect tribute from the barbarians beyond the seas' and unite the world in Confucian harmony. Their journey would last for over two years and take them around the globe but by the time they returned home, China was beginning its long, self-imposed isolation from the world it had so recently embraced. And so the great ships were left to rot and the records of their journey were destroyed. And with them, the knowledge that the Chinese had circumnavigated the globe a century before Magellan, reached America seventy years before Columbus, and Australia three hundred and fifty years before Cook... The result of fifteen years research, 1421 is Gavin Menzies' enthralling account of the voyage of the Chinese fleet, the remarkable discoveries he made and the persuasive evidence to support them: ancient maps, precise navigational knowledge, astronomy and the surviving accounts of Chinese explorers and the later European navigators as well as the traces the fleet left behind - from sunken junks to the votive offerings left by the Chinese sailors wherever they landed, giving thanks to Shao Lin, goddess of the sea. Already hailed as a classic, this is the story of an extraordinary journey of discovery that not only radically alters our understanding of world exploration but also rewrites history itself.

1434


Author : Gavin Menzies
language : en
Publisher: William Morrow
Release Date : 2008-06-03

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Poses a controversial argument that China initiated the Renaissance, in a painstakingly researched chronicle that cites the appearance of Chinese ambassadors in early fifteenth-century Tuscany who met with Pope Eugenius IV and shared history-influencing maps and technology. 150,000 first printing.

The 1421 Heresy


Author : Anatole Andro
language : en
Publisher: AuthorHouse
Release Date : 2005

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During the formative years of the Ming Dynasty the Chinese government dispatched hundreds of gigantic ships, some over 400 feet long, into the Indian Ocean. The enterprise was dubbed Zheng He's Seven Voyages to the Western Ocean because the Ming fleets, led by the legendary Admiral Zheng He, went to sea altogether seven times. After twenty-seven years these maritime expeditions mysteriously stopped. To date no scholar is entirely certain of the reason behind the undertaking. Although practically unknown in the West, these events made indelible impressions on the Southeast Asians. Today Admiral Zheng He is regarded as a god and is worshipped in temples not just in China, but throughout Southeast Asia. This year we see the 600th anniversary of the Ming Chinese launching of their monumental excursions, and scholars have renewed their interest in the historical events. There are speculations and assertions that the Ming fleets actually went beyond the Indian Ocean and even sailed to America-all before Christopher Columbus had made his momentous trips. However, researchers seem to be able to neither prove their hypotheses nor disprove them. In any case, it does seem odd that the Chinese, with their superior naval technology would choose to confine their activities to local waters only. Nevertheless, to prove that they did, one needs irrefutable evidence because the suggestion challenges centuries of established history. Historian/researcher Anatole Andro believes that if such evidence exists, it will need to be European evidence to prove the case. By leaving the Indian Ocean the Chinese would be entering European territory, so to speak. If confirmation to this effect is lacking it will not only fail to prove that the Chinese had sailed outside their local waters, but on the contrary, it would be as good as proof that the Ming Chinese never went beyond their traditional sphere of interest. For two and a half years the author searched for such evidence, examining each piece of suspected artifact and following up on every lead. Not only was he able to uncover such evidence he found the evidence to be widespread. Further, scholars had examined such evidence and either discarded, ignored, or obscured it. This book is the presentation of Mr. Andro's research data, his analyses of the data thereof, and the startling but inevitable conclusions that he arrived at. Written in easy to understand language, this book challenges you to accept his findings or dispute it. In either case it is a thrill ride.

Report On Oakland Schools


Author : California. State Fair Employment Practice Commission
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 1964

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1421 Saat China Menemukan Dunia


Author : Gavin Menzies
language : id
Publisher: Pustaka Alvabet
Release Date : 2010

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Pada 8 Maret 1421, armada laut terbesar yang pernah ada berlayar dari China. Panjang iring-iringannya sekitar lima ratus kaki, di bawah komando laksamana Kaisar Zhu Di. Tugas mereka: ‘berlayar hingga ke ujung dunia’. Pelayaran itu akan berlangsung dua tahun. Dan saat armada laut itu kembali, China memulai pengasingan dirinya yang panjang dari dunia luar yang baru saja ia taklukkan. Armada yang sangat besar itu dibiarkan teronggok. Catatan perjalanan mereka dimusnahkan. Musnah pula pengetahuan tentang China yang telah mengelilingi dunia seabad sebelum Magellan, sampai di Amerika tujuh puluh tahun sebelum Columbus, dan tiba ke Australia tiga ratus lima puluh tahun sebelum Cook. Sebagai hasil penelitian selama lima puluh tahun, buku ini adalah catatan luar biasa tentang perjalanan hebat Gavin Menzies dan temuan-temuannya. Ia menjadi bukti persuasif untuk memerkuat temuan-temuan tersebut: peta kuno, pengetahuan navigasi, astronomi, catatan penjelajah China yang masih ada dan navigator Eropa. Juga jejak yang ditinggalkan oleh armada tesebut. Setelah direvisi dan ditambahi bukti-bukti baru—termasuk bukti tentang armada China yang terdampar di South Island, Selandia Baru—buku 1421 ini menjadi sebuah karya legendaris dan cerdas. Ia melacak sejarah hingga mengubah pemahaman kita tentang penjelajahan dunia. Dengan buku ini, sejarah telah ditulis ulang.

1421


Author :
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2018

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Who Discovered America


Author : Gavin Menzies
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2013

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Updated with astonishing new findings A groundbreaking history that upends our understanding of ancient America From Gavin Menzies, the author of the blockbuster New York Times bestseller 1421, comes a revolutionary new account of how the first humans came to North and South America. Menzies reveals that ancient peoples used the oceans' natural currents and prevailing winds to make voyages across both the Atlantic and Pacific. What's more, we now must accept that they had time to develop remarkably advanced cultures. Armed with cutting-edge DNA evidence, newly unearthed artifacts, and astonishing linguistic and archaeological discoveries, Menzies shows: humans have been making transoceanic voyages as far back as 100,000 years ago, vastly predating the supposed overland migration to the Americas during the last Ice Age; the ancient South American civilizations of the Olmec and Maya in Central and South America may have had direct origins and influences from Asia; ancient maps held in the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., show there must have been sustained and dedicated voyages to the Western Hemisphere by Chinese explorers as early as 2200 b.c.; huge Chinese settlements occupied (and made exploratory journeys from) Nova Scotia; Japanese, Korean, and European voyages predated the explorations currently recorded by history. A maverick scholar, Menzies has made a riveting new contribution to the story of humanity's earliest explorers, revealing the truth behind one of history's most fascinating questions: Who discovered America?