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1421


Author : Gavin Menzies
language : en
Publisher: Random House
Release Date : 2012-08-31

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On 8 March 1421, the largest fleet the world had ever seen set sail from China. The ships, some nearly five hundred feet long, were under the command of Emperor Zhu Di's loyal eunuch admirals. Their mission was 'to proceed all the way to the end of the earth to collect tribute from the barbarians beyond the seas' and unite the world in Confucian harmony. Their journey would last for over two years and take them around the globe but by the time they returned home, China was beginning its long, self-imposed isolation from the world it had so recently embraced. And so the great ships were left to rot and the records of their journey were destroyed. And with them, the knowledge that the Chinese had circumnavigated the globe a century before Magellan, reached America seventy years before Columbus, and Australia three hundred and fifty years before Cook... The result of fifteen years research, 1421 is Gavin Menzies' enthralling account of the voyage of the Chinese fleet, the remarkable discoveries he made and the persuasive evidence to support them: ancient maps, precise navigational knowledge, astronomy and the surviving accounts of Chinese explorers and the later European navigators as well as the traces the fleet left behind - from sunken junks to the votive offerings left by the Chinese sailors wherever they landed, giving thanks to Shao Lin, goddess of the sea. Already hailed as a classic, this is the story of an extraordinary journey of discovery that not only radically alters our understanding of world exploration but also rewrites history itself.

1434


Author : Gavin Menzies
language : en
Publisher: Harper Collins
Release Date : 2009-10-06

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The New York Times bestselling author of 1421 offers another stunning reappraisal of history, presenting compelling new evidence that traces the roots of the European Renaissance to Chinese exploration in the fifteenth century The brilliance of the Renaissance laid the foundation of the modern world. Textbooks tell us that it came about as a result of a rediscovery of the ideas and ideals of classical Greece and Rome. But now bestselling historian Gavin Menzies makes the startling argument that in the year 1434, China—then the world's most technologically advanced civilization—provided the spark that set the European Renaissance ablaze. From that date onward, Europeans embraced Chinese intellectual ideas, discoveries, and inventions, all of which form the basis of western civilization today. Florence and Venice of the early fifteenth century were hubs of world trade, attracting traders from across the globe. Based on years of research, this marvelous history argues that a Chinese fleet—official ambassadors of the emperor—arrived in Tuscany in 1434, where they were received by Pope Eugenius IV in Florence. The delegation presented the influential pope with a wealth of Chinese learning from a diverse range of fields: art, geography (including world maps that were passed on to Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan), astronomy, mathematics, printing, architecture, steel manufacturing, military weaponry, and more. This vast treasure trove of knowledge spread across Europe, igniting the legendary inventiveness of the Renaissance, including the work of such geniuses as da Vinci, Copernicus, Galileo, and more. In 1434, Gavin Menzies combines this long-overdue historical reexamination with the excitement of an investigative adventure. He brings the reader aboard the remarkable Chinese fleet as it sails from China to Cairo and Florence, and then back across the world. Erudite and brilliantly reasoned, 1434 will change the way we see ourselves, our history, and our world.

The 1421 Heresy


Author : Anatole Andro
language : en
Publisher: AuthorHouse
Release Date : 2005

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During the formative years of the Ming Dynasty the Chinese government dispatched hundreds of gigantic ships, some over 400 feet long, into the Indian Ocean. The enterprise was dubbed Zheng He's Seven Voyages to the Western Ocean because the Ming fleets, led by the legendary Admiral Zheng He, went to sea altogether seven times. After twenty-seven years these maritime expeditions mysteriously stopped. To date no scholar is entirely certain of the reason behind the undertaking. Although practically unknown in the West, these events made indelible impressions on the Southeast Asians. Today Admiral Zheng He is regarded as a god and is worshipped in temples not just in China, but throughout Southeast Asia. This year we see the 600th anniversary of the Ming Chinese launching of their monumental excursions, and scholars have renewed their interest in the historical events. There are speculations and assertions that the Ming fleets actually went beyond the Indian Ocean and even sailed to America-all before Christopher Columbus had made his momentous trips. However, researchers seem to be able to neither prove their hypotheses nor disprove them. In any case, it does seem odd that the Chinese, with their superior naval technology would choose to confine their activities to local waters only. Nevertheless, to prove that they did, one needs irrefutable evidence because the suggestion challenges centuries of established history. Historian/researcher Anatole Andro believes that if such evidence exists, it will need to be European evidence to prove the case. By leaving the Indian Ocean the Chinese would be entering European territory, so to speak. If confirmation to this effect is lacking it will not only fail to prove that the Chinese had sailed outside their local waters, but on the contrary, it would be as good as proof that the Ming Chinese never went beyond their traditional sphere of interest. For two and a half years the author searched for such evidence, examining each piece of suspected artifact and following up on every lead. Not only was he able to uncover such evidence he found the evidence to be widespread. Further, scholars had examined such evidence and either discarded, ignored, or obscured it. This book is the presentation of Mr. Andro's research data, his analyses of the data thereof, and the startling but inevitable conclusions that he arrived at. Written in easy to understand language, this book challenges you to accept his findings or dispute it. In either case it is a thrill ride.

The Lost Empire Of Atlantis


Author : Gavin Menzies
language : en
Publisher: Harper Collins
Release Date : 2011-11-08

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“Tremendous. This guy has done history like you would not believe.” —Glenn Beck The secrets of history’s most enduring mystery are finally revealed in The Lost Empire of Atlantis. Through impeccable research and intelligent speculation, Gavin Menzies, the New York Times bestselling author of 1421, uncovers the truth behind the mysterious “lost” city of Atlantis—making the startling claim that the “Atlanteans” discovered America 4,000 years ago and ruled a vast Mediterranean empire that was violently destroyed in 1,500 BC. Forget everything you’ve ever thought about the Atlantis legend—Gavin Menzies will make you a believer!

Who Discovered America


Author : Gavin Menzies
language : en
Publisher: Harper Collins
Release Date : 2013-10-08

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Greatly expanding on his blockbuster 1421, distinguished historian Gavin Menzies uncovers the complete untold history of how mankind came to the Americas—offering new revelations and a radical rethinking of the accepted historical record in Who Discovered America? The iconoclastic historian’s magnum opus, Who Discovered America? calls into question our understanding of how the American continents were settled, shedding new light on the well-known “discoveries” of European explorers, including Christopher Columbus. In Who Discovered America? he combines meticulous research and an adventurer’s spirit to reveal astounding new evidence of an ancient Asian seagoing tradition—most notably the Chinese—that dates as far back as 130,000 years ago. Menzies offers a revolutionary new alternative to the “Beringia” theory of how humans crossed a land bridge connecting Asia and North America during the last Ice Age, and provides a wealth of staggering claims, that hold fascinating and astonishing implications for the history of mankind.

Report On Oakland Schools


Author : California. State Fair Employment Practice Commission
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 1964

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1421 Voyages


Author : Philip J. Rivers
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2004

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